One can, but one will be disappointed. When a sweetener is added to dough, it is generally to feed the yeast, and the yeast is not on a diet.

Another reason sugar or honey or molasses is added to the recipe is to create flavor and color in the finished loaf. Unfortunately, artificial sweeteners tend to break down at high temperatures, and can impart a bitter or chemical taste to your bread, without achieving any of the desired goals.

Now, there are bread recipes that don’t call for sweeteners at all, especially those that include naturally sweet flours, such as oat, barley, chestnut, and white whole wheat, although that may be defeating you purpose. But we’d look for a good sugarless bread before we’d add a sugar substitute to dough. A loaf of French or Italian bread, perhaps?