We are of the opinion (after checking the dictionary thoroughly) that lemon peel and lemon rind are the same thing – although people seldom use the term lemon rind in this country.
A rind, according to said dictionary, is "a thick, hard, or tough natural outer covering, as of a watermelon, grapefruit, or orange," while a peel is "the rind or skin of fruit." As they are the same thing, yes, you can use them interchangeably.
If, however, you are asking about the zest, or only the oily, thin, colorful outer layer of the peel (or rind), and not including the bitter, thick, white pith, then, no, they are not the same thing, and you cannot use them interchangeably. The zest gives a burst of flavor; the pith gives a burst of bitterness.
Finally, if you are referring to candied lemon peel, which is the result of soaking the peel in a sugar syrup, drying, soaking, drying, soaking, etc., until it is preserved, then no, you would not be able to substitute fresh lemon peel, or zest, for candied lemon peel.
Does that cover all the bases?